NEWSLatest news on BEEHAVE and the BEEHAVE suite of models
Guest blog by Eloise Hedgecott
From an outside perspective of someone who knows embarrassingly little about bees, working alongside Prof Juliet Osborne’s bee research group for a week seemed rather a daunting prospect. Or so I felt on Monday, the beginning of my week of work experience in the Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) at the University of Exeter.
After a morning introduction to the ESI building and some of its occupants, I met Beth Roberts – a super friendly PhD student who is spending some time looking at how badgers find and dig up underground bumblebee nests. Beth has been using the latest Bumble-BEEHAVE model to predict the effects of badger predation on bumblebee survival. She had previously buried pots containing bumblebee nest material (which is the stickiest thing I have ever touched), and then set up camera traps to see how frequently badgers manage to find the fake nests. Sorting through the camera trap footage took forever, mainly due to the amount of times cows decided to wander past and trigger a recording. But, every now and then we were rewarded when the cameras captured some footage of the badgers, (and they were a lot less scary on camera than when they jump out of a hedge, as Juliet will tell you).
Tuesday was dedicated to shadowing a ‘Women in Science’ outreach event aimed at 13 to 14 year olds. There were several sessions that the schoolchildren took part in covering topics including geology and engineering. I think that they all had a great time – hopefully they were encouraged to pursue their interest in science in the future!
On Wednesday, Dr Ros Shaw introduced me to one of her previous projects on the nesting habits of solitary bees. The investigation looked at a new ‘bee brick’ – a brick designed by Green and Blue that incorporates holes in which solitary bees such as leaf-cutting bees and mason bees can nest and lay their eggs. After making a vast collection of pie charts, I managed to briefly summarise what colour and height of brick the bees preferred, with some very interesting results.
After all this time indoors, Thursday brought an opportunity to experience some fieldwork alongside Ben Phillips– another PhD student looking at the significance of road verges as a habitat for pollinating insects. We spent the morning collecting pan traps which Ben had set up 48 hours previously, to see which insects were found in different areas. Some traps were placed on verges, some along hedgerows and some in the centre of fields to compare which insects frequent which areas. Afterwards, we had lunch on a cliff overlooking the sea, which was lovely, and Ben ate some more of his many sandwiches.
What has been surprising about working with the bee research group is how varied their work is. There has been something new and different to do each day. I’ve also learned how all the research that goes on is relevant to current events and has a huge range of important applications in the real world.
Spending the week here has been super interesting – everyone in the project has gone out of their way to be really friendly and informative. I feel like I’ve learned a lot and it’s been a very valuable experience – my knowledge of bees has certainly increased tenfold. And I’ve certainly had the full experience – what with sharing Juliet’s guestroom with a couple of hornet nests.
My name is Eloise Hedgecott and I’m 17 years old. I’m currently studying A-levels and I’m hoping to study biology at University. I’m potentially interested in a research career in the future.
‘Virtual safe space’ to help bumblebees
The many threats facing bumblebees can be tested using a “virtual safe space” created by scientists at the University of Exeter.
Bumble-BEEHAVE provides a computer simulation of how colonies will develop and react to multiple factors including pesticides, parasites and habitat loss.
The tool lets researchers, farmers, policymakers and other interested parties test different land management techniques to find out what will be most beneficial for bees. Field experiments can be very timely and costly, so results from Bumble-BEEHAVE can help refine and reduce the number of experiments needed.
Bumble-BEEHAVE – which is freely available online – is a powerful tool that can make predictions, according to a new study.
“We know that pollinator decline is a really big problem for crops and also for wildflowers,” said Dr Grace Twiston-Davies, of the Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus in Cornwall.
“Bumble-BEEHAVE takes into account the many complicated factors that interact to affect bumblebees.
“This provides a virtual safe space to test the different management options.”
“It’s a free, user-friendly system and we’re already starting to work with land managers and wildlife groups on the ground.”
Disentangling the many factors that affect bumblebee colonies is incredibly complicated, meaning real-word testing of different methods by land managers is often not feasible.
This problem prompted the Exeter scientists to create the BEEHAVE (honeybees) and Bumble-BEEHAVE computer models.
Bumble-BEEHAVE can simulate the growth, behaviour and survival of six UK bumblebee species living in a landscape providing various nectar and pollen sources to forage on.
“The Bumble-BEEHAVE model is a significant step towards predicting bumblebee population dynamics,” said Professor Juliet Osborne, who leads the BEEHAVE team.
“It enables researchers to understand the individual and interacting effects of the multiple stressors affecting bumblebee survival and the feedback mechanisms that may buffer a colony against environmental stress, or indeed lead to spiralling colony collapse.
“The model can be used to aid the design of field experiments, for risk assessments, to inform conservation and farming decisions and for assigning bespoke management recommendations.”
Professor Osborne and team won the BBSRC Social Innovator of the Year 2017 award for creating the BEEHAVE models.
“We really hope that researchers and landowners will use the model and give us feedback so we can improve it further in future” said model developer Dr Matthias Becher.
The new study, published in the Journal of Applied Ecology, is entitled: “Bumble-BEEHAVE: a systems model for exploring multifactorial causes of bumblebee decline at individual, colony, population and community level.”
The article can be found here
BEEHAVE model creator, Dr Matthias Becher has just started a prestigious six month Jerrold E. Marsden Fellowship at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences in Toronto, Canada.
Matthias was invited by Prof Hermann Eberl (University of Guelph), the Thematic program on Emerging Challenges in Mathematical Biology. Prof Eberl organises the Thematic Semester with Mark Lewis (University of Alberta) and Frithjof Lutscher (University of Ottawa) .
“This is a great opportunity for me to meet scientists with a mathematical rather than a biological background and discuss the advantages and challenges of the different approaches to model bees and pollination” – Matthias Becher
Usually based at the interdisciplinary Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter, this Fellowships offers Matthias a change of scenery (snow instead of fields), new challenges (-25˚C) and the opportunity to collaborate with other top scientists to explore new ideas in Mathematical Biology.
BEE-STEWARD is a computer program of virtual bees in digital landscapes developed by researchers at the ESI that can be used to predict the effects of different land management on pollinator survival and pollination rates. Now, joining forces with farmers and land managers, we are working together to make sure BEE-STEWARD benefits bees and business on the ground. Although BEE-STEWARD focusses on pollinators and more specifically bumblebees and honeybees, management that is good for bees is also good for lots of other farm wildlife.
Representing the faces of farming across Cornwall, 11 enthusiastic and influential Cornish farmers and advisors gathered to discuss the best ways to work in partnership to benefit bees and business. Together with researchers from the Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) based in the Penryn campus of the University of Exeter, we explored the motivations, barriers and support needed for pollinator-friendly farming into the future at our focus group on 5th September 2017.
The Government. The Countryside Stewardship (CS) scheme can be a huge motivation for farm management, providing governmental guidance, support and funding for practices that look after the environment. However, management on the ground needs to be justified in terms of establishment and maintenance costs and needs to deliver desired results to make sure farmers get involved. Not all farms are eligible for the CS scheme, but this doesn’t mean they’re not aware of food security or that they don’t want to enhance their farmland for nature. This means that there still needs to be direction from the government on how to manage landscapes sustainably for all farms.
Healthy farm, healthy business. It’s not all about money as a motivation. It is clear that farmers want a healthy farmed landscape for nature; their farm is their investment in their future and their families’ future. There are opportunities however, for “win wins” for bees and businesses in terms of financial gains from yield increases or CS schemes payments through the application of pollinator-friendly management exploring these “win wins” in partnership could deliver the best benefits for nature and business.
Supermarkets. Supermarkets are a big motivator; getting a contract with a supermarket can be essential for the future of some farm businesses. Some supermarkets will advocate entry into CS schemes for example which could increase the uptake in pollinator-friendly management, but not all farms supply to supermarket; some are too small and instead supply local farm shops and farmers’ markets. Nevertheless, it appears that there is great potential for supermarkets to influence how their suppliers manage their land sustainably.
Time is money. Many farms already have low profit margins, meaning that dedicating time and land specifically for wildlife can be difficult even if farmers know that space for wildlife is important for the health of their farm. Government incentives such as the CS scheme can be very time consuming especially for small farms where the time spent on the application is not necessarily justified by the potential payments. Every farm is different, and every farmer is different; a blanket approach as we have seen in the past is not appropriate in the future, and therefore management recommendations need to be more bespoke to the individual farm.
Methods where we can optimise land by targeting the best areas to grow food and enhance nature with opportunities to save time and money are required.
Supermarkets. Where supermarkets buy their produce from inevitably comes down to price, this enables them to contend with their competitors. However, buying on price alone doesn’t take into consideration the way in which the land has been managed and doesn’t add value to produce that comes from farmland managed sustainably. It is the general consensus that not all supermarkets are recognising, rewarding and awarding farmers that are doing their best for nature. It is clear that supermarkets could be a big motivation in the future for pollinator-friendly farming and therefore it is essential that we effectively engage supermarkets in BEE-STEWARD.
The “unknown”. Many farmers do not know what wildlife they already have on their farms and so require base-line surveys so then bespoke management can be recommended and applied. There is some help available for these types of surveys e.g. Farm and Wildlife Advisory Group and the Wildlife Trust, but not all farms have access to these services and surveys are time consuming. If farmers know what wildlife is on their farm, it can help them in their management decision making and this information can be shared with the businesses and supermarkets that they supply. It is therefore important that we consider how best to gather on-farm wildlife information and collaborate with the right partners, sharing data and ideas.
Simplify and optimise decision making. It is important to simplify farm management decision making and make sure that any new tools fit with and enhance existing procedures. BEE-STEWARD could be used to compare predictions of different CS scheme options on bee survival and pollination rates and utilise the information that would go into these applications. BEE-STEWARD could be used to identify the best crop (and overwintering crop) type and location, help with rotations and identify the best use of unproductive or “difficult” land e.g. field corners or slopes, all bespoke to the individual farm. There is also a great opportunity for BEE-STEWARD to work with farms on a landscape scale e.g. facilitation areas or farmer clusters to save time and resources and to share best practice through peer-to-peer learning.
Recognise, reward and award. It is clear that the group felt strongly that more support is required from supermarkets to celebrate their farmers who look after nature and share their environmental aims and objectives. Supermarkets have huge influence and can enable farmers to enhance their farmland for wildlife and recognise, reward and award them for their efforts and share this with their customers. Considerable business engagement and campaigning is required, and we have plans to start this in collaboration with the University of Exeter’s Business school, targeting across the “farm-to-fork” supply chain.
Challenge public perceptions. Farmers need the support of the public that they are producing food for. This means that it is essential that all the public understand how farm businesses work and how food is produced – not just those already watching farming programs and attending Open Farm Sundays. The public need to be willing to buy British produce made in a way that supports the environment and need to be willing to pay for it. Businesses are an immediate route to this public engagement by celebrating their producers and what they do for the environment. Many food and farming organisations do this e.g. the NFUs “Back British Farming”. Therefore, it is important to work in collaboration with Natural England, Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and the National Farmers Union on the BEE-STEWARD project so that we can target public events in partnership. Schools and agricultural colleges offer a route to the next generation of farmers and consumers, making sure that they have the knowledge and skills for wildlife-friendly farming in the future.
Taking this forward with BEE-STEWARD
We are planning substantial business engagement to promote BEE-STEWARD and how it can be used to help manage landscapes for bees and business and to celebrate our “Bee-stewards”. There is a great deal of talk about “win wins”, enhancing pollinators whilst increasing profits and there are a few routes to achieve this-
- Using BEE-STEWARD recommendations with the aim of increasing yields or year-on-year yield stability, how can we translate more bees into a better business?
- Using BEE-STEWARD to make best use of difficult land: What are the easy ways to do so, and can we even save money?
- Using BEE-STEWARD as a tool for marketing – celebrating farmers as role models for profitable farms run sustainably and innovatively. This occurs within the farming industry but what about to the wider public?
There are some opportunities highlighted to celebrate pollinator friendly farming-
- The next generation of consumers and farmers: Work with schools and agricultural colleges.
- Supermarket marketing and public engagement in collaboration with partners such as the NFU, the Wildlife Trusts etc.
- Support communities of farmers: Regardless of farm type / size etc, all are running businesses, and need to balance the environment and food production.
We have a great deal of work to do and of course we can’t solve all of the problems with a computer program, but we can work in partnership with scientists, food and farming businesses, supermarkets and the public to make sure we can have a sustainable and profitable farming industry that supports nature and the people that it relies upon.
We have dates for our next focus group where we will put BEE-STEWARD through its paces, testing it out on real farm maps and management options on 29th and 30th of November at the ESI on Penryn Campus, 12:00 noon-2:30pm. We also have business engagement events for the winter and spring, dates TBC. For more information on the project and to join one of our focus groups please contact BEE-STEWARD researcher Grace Twiston-Davies on firstname.lastname@example.org.
One of the main challenges of creating a bumblebee population model that operates in realistic digitised landscapes is how to represent multiple bee species feeding on multiple flower species both with different morphological characteristics.
What determines if a bee can feed on a flower or not? Bumblebees are attracted to some flowers and not others, high quantities of nectar as well as high sugar concentration per flower are important factors, as well as the quality of the pollen that they can collect too. We know that bumblebees have a preference for flowers in the pea family (Fabaceae), this includes White clover (Trifolium repens), Red clover (Trifolium pratense) and Common vetch (Vicia sativa) for example and these are often recommended as in pollinator friendly wild flower seed mixtures. Bumblebees also have a preference for flowers in the daisy family (Asteraceae) like Dandelion (Taraxacum offinale) and Common knapweed (Centurea nigra) and can collect a large amount of nectar and pollen by crawling around the large flower heads of these species without having to fly to and from individual flowers. But some bumblebee species have their particular favourites.
Co-evolution of flowers and bee pollinators means that some bumblebees are better adapted to feed on certain flower shapes than others. The length of the bees tongue (glossa) will determine how far down the nectarine the bumblebee can feed from. Some flowers have a fused corolla tube, this is at the base of the flower and is a tube like structure that will prevent any insects with a tongue shorted than it to feed on all of the nectar.
The widespread buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris has a relatively short tongue at about 6.3 mm on average, in contrast to the Garden bumblebee, Bombus hortorum with 11 mm on average. This means that B. hortorum can feed on flowers with longer corolla tubes, and will possibly mean that B. terrestris and B. hortorum are not always in competition with each other for forage. So in the Bumble-BEEHAVE model we needed to factor in these different bumblebee glossa lengths and flower corolla tube lengths.
There is a great deal of literature out there on this, which makes our job a bit easier. We collected these values from the literature and these formed an input table for the model. We were missing some species data though, Foxgloves (Digitalis purpureum) are tricky, they are essentially entirely a fused corolla tube, but bumblebees can get into these as the flowers are large enough to accommodate most bumblebee body sizes, this means that data on how long this was (up to 45mm) was no use, instead we needed to know how long the part at the back of the flower was that may restrict the bumblebees with shorter tongues from feeding on it.
For this we explored the Cornwall campus of the University of Exeter during the summer which was awash with Foxgloves up to 2 metres high after a bumper year. We sampled 3 flowers from 10 different plants and with digital callipers we measured that back part of the corolla. After washing our hands (as Foxgloves are mildly poisonous!) we calculated that on average this was approximately 7 mm, which may restrict some of the short tongued species. It is also perhaps a combination of a small body size combined with a long tongue that makes B. hortorum (and other long tongued bumblebee species) so effective at feeding on Foxgloves.
We collected data for the 35 different wild flower species that bees feed on nectar from and 3 nectar providing crops that ranged in size from 0 mm corolla tube for open flowers such as Bramble (Rubus fructicosus) and Buttercups (Ranunculus acris), through to Foxgloves, Red dead nettle (Lamium purpureum) and Common vetch (V. sativa) at approximately 7 mm right through to 17 mm for the tubular wild flower Bugle (Ajuga reptans) and a huge 19 mm for Broad bean (V. faba) crops, which may only be assessable to the Queens of long tongued species B. hortorum and B. pascuroum.
With the nectar flower volume and sugar concentration data collected by Dr. Ellie Rotheray from the University of Sussex we had all the data we need to represent different bee species feeding on different flower species in our digitised landscapes.
Now we have this data in our model we can explore a range of questions, we can look into the energetics behind bee feeding preferences, we can look at what species provide the majority of nectar for bees, something that is tricky to do in empirical studies. We also aim to use Bumble-BEEHAVE to explore a range of pollinator friendly Countryside Stewardship options in a variety of landscapes in order to make bespoke management recommendations so watch this space for more news on Bumble-BEEHAVE.
Dr Grace Twiston-Davies is a Postdoctoral Research Associate at the University of Exeter, Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI). Grace has been working with Prof. Juliet Osborne, Dr. Matthias Becher, and Tim Penny on the Bumble-BEEHAVE model as part of the BBSRC funded project “An integrated model for predicting bumblebee population success and pollination services in agro-ecosystems”. She has a PhD in grassland landscape restoration and ecology from the University of Reading.
By Kathy Troke-Thomas
Following on from a successful workshop at the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) conference, the BEEHAVE team are busy extending the real-world impact of our award winning bee behaviour, growth and survival models with the help of land managers and farmers across Cornwall and Devon, South-West, UK.
Bees are important pollinators of many wild flowers and crops and are essential for a healthy environment and a healthy economy. We are working on the development of BEE-STEWARD, a computer software tool that enables the user to visualise how different land management options could affect bee colony survival and pollination rates. In collaboration with Natural England, Cornwall and South Devon AONBs and with support from the National Farmers Union, once completed, BEE-STEWARD will be freely available to aid farmers when considering land management options that effect pollinators.
We have begun to collate useful suggestions and ideas from the workshop that we can apply to the continued improvement of BEE-STEWARD. Here are just a few of those suggestions:
“Create a model that can be altered to be bespoke for the farmers key priorities and interests.”
“Incorporate results that relate to up-to-date stewardship schemes and other government incentives.”
“Offer links to other farmers who have used BEE-STEWARD and share success stories.”
We still need valuable guidance from forward-thinking farmers. Ensuring that the target audience is consulted as we develop the software is essential to producing an efficient, relevant and user-friendly tool. Over the next months we will start a series of focus groups where we can refine BEE-STEWARD with help from farmers and land managers. During these focus groups we plan to discuss the future of farm management that benefits bees and business and test BEE-STEWARD out on real farm maps and management plans.
Our next focus groups are on Wednesday 29th and Thursday 30th November 2017 at the Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE. For more information or to join our focus group please contact BEE-STEWARD researcher Grace Twiston-Davies on email@example.com
Kathy Troke-Thomas is a Laboratory and Teaching Assistant at the University of Exeter. Kathy has been working on stakeholder engagement and communications for the “Farms for AONBees” project, a collaboration between the Environment and Sustainability Institute and Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. She has a BSc in Conservation Biology and Ecology from the University of Exeter and is passionate about wildlife-friendly land management and conservation communication and outreach.
Prof. Juliet Osborne and her BEEHAVE team have won the prestigious BBSRC 2017 “Innovator of the year” award for Social Impact due to their extensive work with policy makers, regulators and land-stewards.
The teams’ impact stretches globally: BEEHAVE is forming the basis of risk assessments for honeybee health across the UK, Europe and the USA, used by Syngenta, Bayer, the European Food Safety Authority and the Environmental Protection Agency.
The newest models, BEESCOUT and Bumble-BEEHAVE are being used with land-stewards such as farmers, land managers and landowners. In collaboration with the National Farmers Union (NFU), Natural England and regional Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) the team are helping to target pollinator-friendly management that benefits pollinator conservation and food production.
“It is really important that the research we do is applicable and useful to a wide range of users” Prof Juliet Osborne
The models enable the testing of different management scenarios in a virtual “safe-space” and so can be used to target and refine land management and environmental regulation. This can save a considerable amount of time and money. At an annual cost of over £1 billion, optimum placement of agri-environment schemes is critical. The agrochemical industry typically spends £1 million per ecotoxicological field trial and over £280 million to bring a product to market. The models can help target land management and trials accordingly, making a major contribution to the protection of our essential pollinators whilst saving millions of pounds. A win-win for bees and business.
The awards were hosted at East Wintergarden, Canary Wharf in London on the 24th May presented by Steve Bagshaw Chief executive of FUJIFILM Diosynth Biotechnolgies and Prof Melanie Welham Executive of BBSRC. Prof Juliet Osborne and Dr Grace Twiston-Davies represented the BEEHAVE team which also includes model developer Dr Matthias Becher and Prof Volker Grimm.
Award winners receive funding to continue with their innovative impact work. The BEEHAVE team plan to “train the trainer” and establish a cohort of expert BEEHAVERS who can inspire and train others across a range of sectors.
The BBSRC Innovator of the Year awards recognises individual researchers and small teams who have excelled in making positive changes outside of the academic community with their research. Now in its ninth year, the awards not only celebrate excellence in impact, but provide the opportunity for the bioscience community to network with influential guests from the academic, policy and industrial communities, share ideas and celebrate innovation.
The way in which we manage our landscapes is having a significant effect on bumblebee survival. There have been recent worldwide declines in bumblebee abundance and species richness due to loss of habitat, loss of forage resources, emerging diseases, and the application of pesticides as well as other factors. Bumblebees are important pollinators of many wild flowers and crops in agricultural landscapes and therefore their decline raises serious concerns about the future of pollination for biodiversity and food security. This means that we need to understand what resources bumblebees require, spatially and seasonally (what they need, where they need it and when they need it), in order to make policy and land management recommendations for healthy and sustainable agricultural landscapes.
Grace’s work focusses on using BEESCOUT and Bumble-BEEHAVE in digitised landscapes that are as realistic as possible to investigate what we can do to increase bumblebee colony survival in farmland.
Grace describes her BEEHAVE model projects-
Creating realistic digital landscapes for BEESCOUT
WHAT: I have been working with Dr Matthias Becher and Prof Juliet Osborne on creating and applying Bumble-BEEHAVE, a model that represents many bumblebee colonies interacting in a realistic landscape. Using Bumble-BEEHAVE, we can investigate bumblebee colony survival in relation to the landscape scale resource availability of forage flowers. A major challenge has been how to represent complex and seasonally changing forage availability in a realistic way, this is because bumblebees feed on various flower species for pollen and nectar and these flower species differ in flowering date, location and in the quality and quantity of nectar and pollen they produce.
To simulate this in Bumble-BEEHAVE, we have developed a landscape represented as multiple layers of different floral resource species, initially implemented in BEESCOUT. Individual bumblebees then make decisions on what to forage for (nectar or pollen), where to forage and what species to forage on, depending on their past experience and the needs of the colony.
By characterising the landscape using this multi-resource layered method we can explore management and conservation scenarios such as the distribution, concentration and species composition of pollinator-friendly Countryside Stewardship options like wild flower margins.
WHERE: The Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) at the University of Exeter, UK
Using BEESCOUT and our new model Bumble-BEEHAVE to help make management decisions
WHAT: We are currently using BEESCOUT and Bumble-BEEHAVE to explore a range of pollinator friendly management options such as Countryside Stewardship in a variety of landscapes. In order to make bespoke management recommendations we are developing a network of local, regional and national users who can utilise Bumble-BEEHAVE to aid pollinator conservation and management decision making in their own landscapes.
Part of this network includes my current project translating Bumble-BEEHAVE and BEESCOUT to evidenced-based decision making at a regional scale by collaborating with Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in implementing their Pollinator strategy. Here we are working with farmers to create tailor-made management recommendations to enhance Cornwall’s landscapes for pollinator conservation and food production.
Grace Twiston-Davies is a Postdoctoral Research Associate at the University of Exeter’s Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) and is the NERC Knowledge Exchange Researcher on the project “Using bee models to support decision-making in the implementation of the National Pollinator Strategy in Cornwall”. She has specific expertise in applying computer based ecological analyses and models to evidence-based decision making and has previously collaborated with the National Trust during her PhD at the University of Reading to scientifically underpin their landscape-scale biodiversity restoration strategy and activities.
BEEHAVE model developer Matthias Becher recently gave a talk to the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) about the potential use of BEEHAVE to investigate the effect of the predatory Asian hornet on honeybee colony survival.
Matthias described how recent research (see below) indicates that Asian hornets not only kill more honeybees but drastically reduce the number of honeybees foraging, which can cause colony collapse. Asian hornets in particular are a concern as they are aggressive predators of many beneficial insects including honeybees and can cause losses in wild and managed bee colonies. Asian hornets only arrived in the UK last summer and have been successfully contained so far due to quick response from the National Bee unit. They were accidently introduced to France in or before 2004 and are now common across Europe.
APHA work to safeguard animal and plant health for the benefit of people, the environment and the economy, the recent invasion of the Asian Hornet in the UK raises serious concerns about the future health of our honeybee colonies which contribute significantly to the British economy. In understanding the behaviour of Asian hornets and their effect on honeybee colonies we may be able to quickly put in place management if outbreaks can’t be controlled.
Matthias gave a talk entitled “BEEHAVE: simulating multiple stressors in honeybees with an application to the Asian hornet (Vespa velutina)” which introduced BEEHAVE and its applications and then used the recent work by Dr Fabrice Requier predicting that hornets could increase the mortality of honeybee foragers by up to 80% and also reduce overall foraging to 0 in his work on the impact of the Asian hornet on honeybees in France.
More info on the Asian hornet research-
Arrived in France over 10 years ago, the Asian hornet (also known as the yellow-legged hornet) is an invasive insect in Western Europe. This hornet predates on honeybee foragers at the beehives entrance and is suspected to weaken the colonies before the winter. Dr Fabrice Requier and his team, assessed the risk of winter colony loss caused by the predation of yellow-legged hornet on honeybees by combining field observations and BEEHAVE simulations. They carried out large-scale visual observations and video surveillance automated to track the predator-prey relationship between the hornet and honeybees nearby colonies’ entrances. Then they gauged the number of catches of foragers and the foraging paralysis, which are two direct impacts of the hornet on honeybees, and infer those impacts in a model of bee colony dynamics. They further preformed simulations to assess the risk of colony failure related to the predation impacts. While empirical data showed negative impacts of the predation of the hornet to the foraging activity of honeybees, BEEHAVE simulations predicted that those impacts lead to winter colony loss, but only on previously weakened colonies.
Picture published in Requier, F., Chiron, G. & Ménard, M. (2016) Décrypter le vol des abeilles en 3D. Biofutur, 380, 48-53.
NetLogo 6 is now available with some useful new features such as the auto-completion of code and the option of collapsing procedures. However, there are a few problems and current users of BEEHAVE will need to do a small edit to the model before running BEEHAVE in the new NetLogo version 6.
A major problem is also that BEEHAVE runs much slower in NetLogo 6, in our recent test it was four times slower than the Netlogo version 5.3.1. Additionally the “Undo” command does not work so beware! This means that we don’t currently recommend NetLogo 6 for the efficient use of BEEHAVE until some of these issues have been addressed.
If you do want to use this new version, an automated conversion is available but you may get an error message. What you need to do is remove the “Video” button (which is no longer supported by NetLogo 6) and automated conversion should be successful.
Click here for the new Netlogo 6 user manual and feature changes.
Header photo © Pete Kenedy